Guiding Principles and Practices
Purpose of Grading:
To communicate to parents, students, and other teachers a student’s performance and competency in relation to course or grade-level standards
While student behaviors impact academic achievement, grades are based on evidence of learning.
- Final grades reflect student performance on standards from a variety of summative assessments.
- Daily homework is considered student practice and is monitored but is not calculated as a significant part of the overall grade.
- Student behaviors including late work, effort and participation will be addressed and reported, but not calculated as part of the grade.
- Student behaviors including cheating, non-compliance, un-excused absences are treated as disciplinary issues.
- Extra credit and bonus points inaccurately reflect student achievement.
- Group work or cooperative learning is an instructional strategy; student performance will be assessed individually.
- Zeros (on a 100-percentile scale) disproportionately impact the reporting of student achievement.
Instruction is sequenced to build student skills and knowledge.
- Learning targets are pre-determined and clear to both students and teachers before and during instruction.
- Learning targets guide development of instruction and assessment.
- Students can articulate learning targets.
The assessment process is used as an opportunity for student learning and for teachers to inform instruction.
- Feedback is most effective when it is timely, frequent and specific to learning targets.
- Multiple opportunities to demonstrate student learning are provided, such as retakes, re-submission of work or alternative methods of assessment.
- Opportunities for students to show learning are time sensitive and must be completed by a pre-determined date.
Students are involved in the learning process and monitor their own progress.
- Students can communicate what they know, what they need to know, and what to do next to improve.
- Students track their progress toward mastery of learning targets.
Based on collaborative work by PSD Grading for Learning leadership team (2012) using action research and literature from experts from the field, including Robert Marzano, Dylan Wiliam and Paul Black, Tom Guskey, Rick Wormeli, John Hattie, Ken O’Connor, and Douglas Reeves